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What are the practical applications of Quantum Entanglement?

The very complex definition of Entangled states according to Quantum mechanics entangled systems are defined to be one whose quantum state cannot be factored as a product of states of its local constituents; that is to say, they are not individual particles but are an inseparable whole. In entanglement, one constituent cannot be fully described without considering the other(s). To know more about Quantum Entanglement visit our post The very weird phenomenon, Quantum Entanglement


Quantum Entanglement or "spooky action at a distance" is being harnessed, along with other quantum effects, for use in a variety of real-world applications. Some of them are:



1. Ultra-Precise Clocks

Reliable timekeeping is about more than just your morning alarm. Clocks synchronize our technological world, keeping things like stock markets and GPS systems in line. Today, the most precise clocks in the world, atomic clocks, are able to use principles of quantum entanglement to measure time.The quantum-logic clock at the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Colorado only loses or gains a second every 3.7 billion years. And the NIST strontium clock, unveiled earlier this year, will be that accurate for 5 billion years—longer than the current age of the Earth. Such super-sensitive atomic clocks help with GPS navigation, telecommunications, and surveying.



2. Super-Powerful Computers-

A standard computer encodes information as a string of binary digits, or bits. Quantum computers supercharge processing power because they use quantum bits, or qubits, which exist in a superposition of states—until they are measured, qubits can be both "1" and "0" at the same time.This field is still in development, but there have been steps in the right direction. In 2011, D-Wave Systems revealed the D-Wave One, a 128-qubit processor, followed a year later by the 512-qubit D-Wave Two. The company says these are the world's first commercially available quantum computers.



3. Cryptography-

Traditional cryptography works using keys: A sender uses one key to encode information, and a recipient uses another to decode the message. However, it’s difficult to remove the risk of an eavesdropper, and keys can be compromised.This can be fixed using potentially unbreakable quantum key distribution (QKD).In QKD, information about the key is sent via photons that have been randomly polarized.

Companies such as BBN Technologies, Toshiba, and ID Quantique use QKD to design ultra-secure networks. In 2007 Switzerland tried out an ID Quantique product to provide a tamper-proof voting system during an election. And the first bank transfer using entangled QKD went ahead in Austria in 2004.


4. Improved Microscopes-

A team of researchers at Japan’s Hokkaido University developed the world’s first entanglement-enhanced microscope, using a technique known as differential interference contrast microscopy. This type of microscope fires two beams of photons at a substance and measures the interference pattern created by the reflected beams—the pattern changes depending on whether they hit a flat or uneven surface.


Information source : www.smithsonianmag.com


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